1.0 SPSS commands used in this unit
crosstabs  Crosstabulations 
ttest  ttests 
glm  General linear models 
regression  OLS regressions 
pplot  Normal probability plot 
logistic  Logistic regressions 
npar  Nonparametric tests 
2.0 Demonstration and explanation
For this section we will be using the hs1.sav data set that we worked with in previous sections.

File Open Data select C:spss_datahs1.sav
2.1 Chisquare
The chisquare test is used to determine if there is a relationship between two categorical variables.

Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs... select prgtype for the rows and ses for the columns click on "Statistics" check the chisquare box
2.2 ttests
This is the onesample ttest, testing whether the sample of writing scores was drawn from a population with a mean of 50.

Analyze Compare Means One Sample ttest select write and compare it to 50
This is the twosample independent ttest with separate (unequal) variances.

Analyze Compare Means Independent Samples ttest select write as the dependent variable and female as the independent variable
This is the paired ttest, testing whether or not the mean of write equals the mean of science.

Analyze Compare Means Paired Samples ttest select write and science
2.2 ANOVA
In this example the glm command is used to perform a oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Analyze General Linear Models Univariate select write as the dependent variable and prog as the fixed factor
In this example the glm command is used to perform a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA). The plot option creates plots of the means, which can be a great visual aid to understanding the data.

Analyze General Linear Models Univariate select write as the dependent variable and prog and ses as fixed factors Plots select prog to be the X axis and ses to be the separate lines Add Continue
The Tukey test is used to test all the pairwise comparisons of the levels of prog.

Repeat the above analysis (dialogue recall) Post Hoc select prog and choose Tukey test
Here the glm command performs an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Note that the results are exactly the same as in the regression where write and science are regressed on math.

Analyze General Linear Models Univariate select math as the dependent variable and science and write as covariates model select custom choose main effect in the build terms field and select every variable in the Factors & Covariates field and move them to the Model field.
2.3 Regression
This is plain old OLS regression.

Analyze Regression Linear select math as the dependent variable and write and science as independent variables
It is often very useful to look at the standardized residual versus standardized predicted plot in order to look for outliers and to check for homogeneity of variance. The ideal situation is to see no observations beyond the reference lines, which means that there are no outliers. Also, we would like the points on the plot to be distributed randomly, which means that all the systematic variance has been explained by the model.

Analyze Regression Linear select math as the dependent variable and female, write and socst as independent variables Save Click on Unstarndarized residuals Plots... select Zresid for the Y axis and ZPred for the X axis Continue OK Double click on the plot Options Y Axis Reference Line add a line at Y = 2.5 Apply add a line at Y = 2.5 Apply
The PP plots command produces a normal probability plot. It is a method of testing if the residuals from the regression are normally distributed.

Analyze Descriptives PP plots select res_1 and the test distribution to be "normal"
The QQ plots produces a normal quantile plot. It is another method for testing if the residuals are normally distributed. The normal quantile plot is more sensitive to deviances from normality in the tails of the distribution, whereas the normal probability plot is more sensitive to deviances near the mean of the distribution.

Analyze Descriptives QQ plots Select res_1 and the test distribution to be "normal"
2.4 Logistic regression
Logistic regression requires a dependent variable that is dichotomous (i.e., has only two values). As we do not have such a variable in our data set, we will create one called honcomp (honors composition). This is purely for illustrative purposes only!

Transform Compute select honcomp for the "target variable" and for numeric expression enter "write >= 60".

Analyze Regression Binary Logistic select honcomp as the dependent variable, and select read and socst as covariates
2.5 Nonparametric tests
The binomial test is the nonparametric analog of the singlesample twosided ttest.

Analyze Nonparametric Tests Binomial select write and define the cut point to be 50
The signrank test is the nonparametric analog of the paired ttest.

Analyze Nonparametric Tests 2 Related Samples select write and read as the test pair list and select Wilcoxon as the test type
The Mann Whitney U test is the nonparametric analog of the independent twosample ttest.

Analyze Nonparametric Tests 2 Independent Samples select write as the test variable list, select female as the group variable click on Define Groups and enter 0 and 1 Continue select Mann Whitney U as the test type
The Kruskal Wallis test is the nonparametric analog of the oneway ANOVA.

Analyze Nonparametric Tests K Independent Samples select write as the test variable list and select prog as the group variable click on Define Range and enter 1 for the Minimum and 3 for the Maximum Continue
3.0 Syntax version
get file "c:spss_datahs1.sav". * chisquare test. crosstabs /tables prgtype by ses /statistic = chisq.
* ttests. ttest /testval=50 /variables=write. ttest groups=female(0 1) /variables=write. ttest pairs= write with science (paired). * anova. glm write by prog /design = prog. glm write by prog ses /design = prog, ses, prog*ses /plot = profile(prog*ses). glm write by prog ses /design = prog, ses, prog*ses /posthoc = prog(tukey). * ancova. glm math with science write /design= science write. * regression. regression /dependent math /method=enter write science. regression /dependent math /method=enter socst write ses /scatterplot=(*zresid ,*zpred ). *residual plots. pplot /variables=res_1 /type=pp /dist=normal. pplot /variables=res_1 /type=qq /dist=normal. * creating a dichotomous variable. compute honcomp = (write > 60). execute. * logistic regression. logistic regression var=honcomp /method=enter read socst. * nonparametric tests. * binomial test. npar test /binomial (.50)= write (50). * sign test. npar test /sign= read with write (paired). *signrank test. npar tests /mw= write by female(1 0). * kruskalwallis test. npar tests /kw=write by prog(1 3).
4.0 For more information

Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SPSS
Includes guidelines for choosing the correct nonparametric test  SPSS Frequently Asked Questions
Covers many different topics including: ANOVA, Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and linear regression  SPSS Regression Webbook
Includes such topics as diagnostics, categorical predictors, testing interactions and testing contrasts  SPSS Data Analysis Examples
Includes examples of common data analysis techniques  SPSS Annotated Output
 SPSS Library
Topics in ANOVA and other subjects
Includes annotated output for descriptive statistics, correlation,
regression and logistic regression